COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL DE PALÉOGRAPHIE LATINE
Yale University (New Haven, CT), 68 septembre 2017
scribes et la présentation du texte
Scribes and the Presentation of Texts
| Colloques internationaux de paléographie latine|| Accueil / Homepage|
of Presentation in Carolingian Letter-Collections
Evidence for Carolingian
letters is "spare". Three sent originals survive. A number of
volumes of mate-rial in the MGH Epistolae series. All that is an infinitesimally
small fraction of what existed.
The presentation of texts in existing editions at once emulates and falsifies the surviving evidence. I shall present recoverable strategies of presentation and inscription as knowable especially from the letter-book of Lupus of Ferrières (Paris, BnF, lat. 2858-I), which is demonstrably the original inscription of the selection of material for transmission that it includes. I shall consider applicable original Caro-lingian parallels. A master hand found in other mss. associated or associable with Lupus and Ferrières corrected the collection of his letters. I shall consider in detail the palaeography of the master hand (more widely known, and perhaps nameable) and his associates. The three major participants in the copying of extant collection marked the letters with headings which show particular textual and graphic innovations vis-à-vis historical otherwise known circumstances and the texts themselves. I shall provide detailed accounts of certain events, people, and subtle transformations "inscribed" in the particular bent and form given to the headings and concomitant surmisable omissions in the adjoining inscriptions proper.
Categories of promoters and categories of writings: the free will of the scribes, cause of formal graphic differences
The polygraphic capacities
of the scribes manifest themselves in different ways. Different texts
or different parts of these could require a specific type of script. Often,
a same scribe was capable of answer-ing to these demands. But, it was
not infrequent, either, that a scribe applied a bigger or smaller deter-mination
carrying out of his work as the amount that might report him. It is for
this reason that some texts can present an aspect more neglected, not
because of lack capacity of the copists or scribes, but simply because
of a lack of sufficient motivation of themselves in case that they receive
a small remu-neration. Otherwise they do their best.
On the other hand,
throughout the active life of a same scribe changes were not always progressives.
In some cases, a contrary trend, regressive, is observed and can be made
particularly visible in amanuen-ses of advanced age. Here the changes
of the script are also due to the free will of their authors.
These changes can confuse the scholars if they have the wrong idea that a mediocre penmanship is always fruit of a less cultivated scribe and if they do not take into account the presence of graphic ar-chaisms too. To examine in detail some of these examples is the purpose of our communication.
Decision-making and work flow in the making of Exon Domesday
Library and Archives, MS. 3500 is a manuscript of exceptional complexity,
produced in response to King William I's order to create the survey of
his English dominions which has been known since the twelfth century as
Domesday Book. The survey was commissioned in December 1085 and possibly
completed by 1 August the following year. The Exeter manuscript is both
a unique survival from the first information-gathering phase of the Domesday
process and a rare example of a datable manuscript from the first generation
of the Norman Conquest of England. Its codicology and palaeog-raphy have
been minutely surveyed by Francisco Álvarez López as part
of a major research project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research
In his 2006 study of the manuscript Colin Flight had already suggested that a master scribe was in command of the process of copying Exon Domesday. Our project has shown that its twenty-five scribes collaborate on the page in an orderly way, anticipating the receipt of new information and responding to it when it arrives, correcting and checking the content, necessitating the involvement of as many as four scribes on a single page. Similarly, the evidence collected from its 532 leaves suggests that the booklets were produced and freely adapted in immediate response to the peculiar nature of the content and the ways in which the information was organised. This paper will present a summary of our find-ings in the light of some of the key research questions that were set out at the start of the project.
plano recte legi possit. Strategie distintive e conservatorismo grafico
nel manoscritto latino di contenuto giuridico tra Antichità e Medioevo.
A comparison between ancient, late antique (mostly unknown and so far unedited) and medieval Latin manuscripts of juridical contents allows us to highlight the continuity between the Late Antiquity and the Roman Middle Ages. Titles, rubricae, numbers, paratextual elements in medieval legal manuscripts of Roman origin show significant similarities with the older evidence; in my opinion, this is due a) to the type of text (that 'imposes' a mise en page with a very stable and rich paratext); b) to a trend in 'conservatism' in the mise en page, likely because of the presence in medieval Rome of many late an-tique legal models/antigraphs.
des textes, discours diplomatique et 'responsables de la transcription
des textes' : autour des chartes clunisiennes.
This paper will take Cluniac charters (tenth-eleventh centuries) as a basis for reflecting on how the layout of charters, in spite of a limited variability, could be part of the 'diplomatic discourse' developed by the texts on several levels (going from their grammatical composition to their validation). In this regard, it is also important to assess the possibilities of associating layout and related elements (script, punctuation, graphical signs) with the activity of individuals. Further, the relationship between the layout and the various steps in the creation of a charter shall be studied, as well as the impact of the visual presentation of the documents on their reception by historians.
between author, scribe and manuscript. Use and function of one paratext
in the medieval manuscripts of the Herzog August Library
This contribution aims to analyze the prologues of ancient and medieval works focusing on their layout in medieval manuscripts. In particular following aspects have to be considered with respect of the topic of the conference: the relationship between what the author says about the materiality of his work and the practical shape of the actual written manuscript; the aesthetic or functional criteria which were used by the scribe(s) in order to highlight the prologue and separate it from the rest of the text, and, finally, the interaction between different paratextual elements in the mise en page of the prologue. The variety of the manuscript collections at the HAB but also in some cases their consistency (e.g. the codi-ces from Weissenburg) offer a good basis for the investigation.
shaping of the Latin classics in fourteenth-century Italy
My paper presents the results of a research project which investigates how humanistic culture devel-oped in Italy during the fourteenth century, focuses on the connections between the texts of the Latin classics and their material transmission and is based on a selection of manuscripts in the Canonici col-lection, Bodleian Library. This collection can be considered an ideal starting point for assessing how the Latin classics were reshaped in Italy for two main reasons. First, the richness and diversity of the texts preserved in the Canonici collection ensures that manuscripts of the classics can be studied within the general context of fourteenth-century book production. Then, most of the Canonici manuscripts come from northern and central Italy and offer the possibility of investigating the production, study and use of classical texts not only in Florence, but also in other centres that have received much less attention.
la 'Lex Visigothorum' al Fuero Juzgo: aspectos materiales, formales y
Il y a quarante ans que Manuel C. Díaz y Díaz avais souligné le rôle joué par les modèles sur la diffusion et la survivance de certains caractères matériels et formels des manuscrits contenant la Lex Visigothorum et qu´on pouvait faire remonter jusqu'à l'époque wisigothique. Par conséquent, il avait consacré attention spéciale à l'analyse codicologique et paléographique des manuscrits du haut Moyen Âge por-teurs de ce texte, en latin et majoritairement en écriture wisigothique. Mais le texte du Liber Iudicum ou Liber Iudiciorum a été traduit à partir du XIIIème siècle aux langues romanes péninsulaires avec le titre de Fuero Juzgo. Nous nous proposons d'analyser dans quelle mesure les manuscrits de ces traductions, en plus de refléter les changements logiques en rapport avec l'évolution de l'écriture ou la con-solidation progressive du papier, conservent certains éléments formels, la mise en page ou les rubri-ques, présents dans leurs possibles modèles de la tradition latine, ou, au contraire, les modifient en les adaptant aux nouvelles tendances dans la production du manuscrit au bas Moyen Âge. D'autre part, pour expliquer les éléments de continuité ou de changement il ne suffit pas de tenir compte de l'influ-ence de ces modèles, mais entrent en jeu d'autres facteurs, comme les commanditaires des copies, les ateliers et les auteurs matériels de ces dernières, ou les possibles destinataires, qu'il s'agisse des par-ticuliers ou d'institutions, des exemplaires.
of Distinction: Scribes and the Levels of Charter Production in Medieval
Using twelfth- and
thirteenth-century charters principally from Lugo Cathedral, the Cistercian
monas-teries of Meira and Sobrado, and the Benedictine house at Samos,
this paper investigates the range of ways charters of special importance
were singled out for distinctive treatment. I focus on charters that recorded
unusually large gifts or expensive sales, or those involving prominent
protagonists. I consider material features (the size, quality, and preparation
of the parchment), layout (ruling of charters, spacing of writing, separation
of clauses, organization of witness lists), script (including different
registers, specific letter forms, selective embellishment, and expansion
of common abbreviations), decorative elements (the chrismon and other
signs), and language (use or elaboration of formulas, orthography, and
formal Latin or Romance usage).
The large number of
signed and dated documents from these institutions makes it possible to
analyze these prestigious charters against the backdrop of the more routine
work of individual scribes and their scriptoria. As a result, we can see
how scribes varied the presentation of charters in response to their commissions,
or how key assignments were reserved for specific scribes in a larger
scriptorium. In some cases, we can identity sources and experiences that
shaped their efforts to fashion a more attractive charter for a suitable
occasion. These included contemporary book production, royal and papal
documents, and the heritage of more prolix formulas in early medieval
documents of Galicia and the Leonese kingdom.
My findings highlight the agency and creativity of scribes, and remind us that writing-even in the workaday world of charter production-was a malleable and creative art, not a set of forms and formu-las learned mechanically and repeated by rote. Moreover, the scriptorium and archive appear as a storehouse of ideas and laboratory for experimentation, where diverse texts were produced and earlier documents, books, and privileges from many institutions were gathered together. This enabled scribes to approach a range of texts creatively as sources for the constant enrichment of contemporary writing.
de la mise en page dans les manuscrits de compilation au Moyen Age
Sur base d'environ
150 prologues de compilations et une centaine de manuscrits différents,
je propose d'observer quatre phénomènes dans la littérature
de compilation : annoncer un titre, fournir un pro-logue, organiser les
citations et enfin indexer les citations et/ou fournir une table des auteurs.
Donner un titre précis à sa compilation nécessite
souvent de se justifier pour accéder à un statut d'autorité,
de synthèse, d'" originalité ". Fournir un plan,
expliquer sa méthode pour organiser des textes d'autrui n'est pas
la chose la plus courante, même au bas Moyen Age. L'usage de marqueurs
de citations dans le texte et/ou en marge, et évidemment leur indexation
le cas échéant, ont des implications immédiates sur
la lisibilité du manuscrit.
Si le vocabulaire
technique est assez pauvre pour le haut Moyen Age, le 13e siècle
innove, en utilisant l'ordre alphabétique pour indexer les citations
- et plus tard dans le siècle pour les classer par thèmes
- et surtout les auteurs prennent soin d'expliquer les procédés.
Je propose dans ces cas de comparer les mots utilisés dans les
prologues à la mise en page réelle. Comment se concrétisent
des expressions telles que " per que singule sententie concordate
- concordationis gratia reducuntur - per earumdem dictionum concordantiam
", " Ita quod a paragrapho usque ad paragraphum sequentem uel
numerum capitulorum uel librorum uel rubricam aliam continuant uerba auctorum
", " more concordantiarum collegi ", " in fronte libri
in superiori margine litteram capitalem per se positam minio scriptam
", etc. Enfin, il n'est pas rare, comme dans le Resina scripturarum
composé à Clairvaux au 13e siècle, qu'aucun prologue
n'explicite les intentions du compilateur, mais que le système
de renvois à l'intérieur de l'uvre, la hiérarchie
des couleurs dans la mise en évidence des citations ait été
conçu pour une consul-tation efficace ou rapide, sans qu'il soit
nécessaire de s'appesantir sur un outillage intellectuel désor-mais
Le bas Moyen Age laissera
coexister des outils alphabétiques qui pourront se recopier indépendamment
du format de la page, et des recueils personnels sans planification et
où l'efficacité de la consultation ne constitue pas l'exigence
scripts: a way of presenting texts
Half uncial scripts were used across the Mediterranean world from the fifth to the ninth century. They represent a major shift in the form of writing, which has not really been explored or explained. Is the choice to copy a text in half uncial a statement about the status of that text? Does the script have particular connotations? Can we make comments about the form and functions of the script? In this paper I shall argue that half uncial letter forms were sometimes more familiar to early medieval scribes than uncial letter forms, and that they served as a reference point for scribes in the development of insular scripts and of Caroline minuscule scripts. I shall also consider why half uncial survived as a script for so long, and how it was used by different scribes in different cultural settings, especially at Lyon and at Castellum Lucullanum. What was the role of half uncial in the copying of Roman law and canon law texts? By examining half uncial I hope to raise fundamental issues about the nature of minuscule scripts.
Design: Design Elements in Early Italian Mass Books
The combination of
the various individual and seriated textual elements - readings, rubrics,
chant, and prayers - in a single "mass book" was one of the
most successful and widely disseminated innovations of western book, liturgical,
and cultural history. What has remained largely obscured is just how early
scribes combined different kinds of texts and series of texts (fixed and
variable; read silently, aloud, sung, instructions to be followed, and
material to be consulted) in a single volume.
have long proposed diverse reasons for the adoption of the integrated
"missal" for-mat of mass books (instead of separate books for
different texts). These hypotheses have remained un-convincing however,
in part because they neglect to examine sufficiently closely the extant
mass books as material witnesses of what is at base a question of design:
how scribes combined different texts, and different series of texts in
a single volume intended to be used in the course of ritual performance.
Be-fore developing theories regarding the reasons for this integration,
what is needed is a careful, quanti-tative, description and analysis of
extant early mass book manuscripts, and comparison with sets of contemporary
anthologies, in order better to understand how, when, and where early
medieval mass texts were integrated.
It is now becoming
clear that integrated mass books were a more common and earlier than has
been previously thought. While the attribution of universal change in
preference in format to integrated mass book (missal) to the long-twelfth
century now appears to be accurate, a picture is emerging of an overwhelming
preference for the integrated mass book format in the Beneventan scribal
zone from our earliest surviving evidence, long before the dominance of
the format elsewhere. Moreover, recent analysis of Berhard Bischoff's
Katalog of ninth-century manuscript identifies no fewer than fourteen
integrated mass book fragments all identified as Italian, and all dating
before the turn of the tenth cen-tury.
This paper will explore quantitatively the codicology, layout, and use of readers aids of Italian inte-grated mass books prior to 1200, and compare the results with scribal practice in anthologies of other texts.
Writing and Decorating the Bible: Montecassino, a Case Study
For those wishing
to investigate the changes that occurred in the structure, writing, decoration
and contents of biblical manuscripts over the centuries, Montecassino
represents an ideal case study. It is well known that the abbey's scriptorium
fostered a strong and characteristic local tradition, but it also received
and reinterpreted influences arriving from outside; indeed, as early as
the Middle Ages, its library contained manuscripts of different origins
and cultural traditions. Thanks to the large number of variously dated
biblical codices still preserved in situ (either produced at the abbey
or in the sur-rounding area, or acquired from different regions of Italy
and Europe), Montecassino represents an exceptional window onto the physical,
textual, graphic and decorative transformations undergone by the Bible
between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. Additionally, the collection
offers insights into the changes that occurred in the Bible's use.
Capitalising on the
results obtained through the detailed cataloging of almost a hundred complete,
partial or glossed Bibles produced at Montecassino or by its dependencies,
or acquired elsewhere (all of which are still held in the abbey's archive),
the proposed contribution aims to evaluate them as a whole. A multidisciplinary
approach will be adopted and particular attention will be paid to the
We also wish:
British History Begins: Scribal Presentations of the Prose Brut Chronicle
In its Anglo-Norman
and Middle English manifestations, the prose Brut chronicle survives in
well over 200 manuscripts , more than any other vernacular insular work
aside from the versions of Wycliffite Bible in English. First printed
by William Caxton in 1480, it appeared in thirteen different printed edi-tions
before 1528, and its matter was still influential into the seventeenth
century. For centuries, the prose Brut set the context, form, and matter
for vernacular historical writing in England, and it may have played a
significant role in the establishment and growth of commercial book production
for a vernacular readership whose formation it encouraged. The sheer number
of surviving manuscripts makes the prose Brut tradition an unparalleled
resource for the study of habits of writing and reading, the growth of
literacy and the book trade, the continuing role of Anglo-Norman, and
the development of Middle English prose in the fourteenth and fifteenth
range widely in scribal presentation, textual context, and size, from
cheap, hasty productions possibly made for personal use (e.g., Oxford,
Bodleian, Douce 120), to handsome pocket books (e.g., London, British
Library, Additional 35092), to late, deluxe illustrated Continental texts
with illustrations (e.g., Paris, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève
In this paper, concentrating on the beginning and end of the chronicle, I will examine the meaningfully different ways in which scribes across the centuries present the Brut's history and guide the reader's response to and understanding of it, by means other than outright revision of the body of the text, such as rubrication, textual organization, and strategic use of decorative elements. My examples will range across the corpus (with concentration on the Anglo-Norman versions, which I know best), but I will focus particularly on the prose Brut manuscripts held at the Beinecke Library (numbers 86, 323, 405, 494, and 593). Time permitting, I will also briefly consider the Brut's transition into print (Yale holds a number of the early printed editions).
linea arboris genealogie: form and function of genealogical diagrams of
the kings of France
This paper examines
the format and role of the genealogical diagrams found alongside or within
chronicles of the kings of France. The main focus is on A tous nobles,
a brief anonymous chronicle where genealogical trees are integrated with
the text, but other genealogical diagrams of the French kings are also
considered. A tous nobles survives in more than sixty manuscripts and
more than twenty textual versions. Most of these versions have a corresponding
version of a genealogical tree. Apart from these variations of content,
there are numerous variations of physical layout and form, as different
writers (authors and/or scribes) sought to present the diagrams in the
most effective manner. The most common solution was to copy the chronicle
onto a roll, so that history could literally roll out in front of the
reader's eyes in a continuous narrative without the breaks caused by turning
pages. However, many versions were copied in the codex format, which led
to a variety of different forms of the genealogical figures, some of them
ingenious solutions to the problem of how to replicate the continu-ity
of the line of succession that a roll so effectively provided.
The role of the diagrams
went beyond that of physically representing the passage of time and dynastic
continuity. They could also convey a more political message, namely the
legitimacy or otherwise of individual kings. From one of the earliest
diagrams of the kings of France in the 11th century down to A tous nobles
in the late 15th century, design and layout played an essential role in
expressing such a message. This was sometimes acknowledged explicitly
by authors such as Gilles de Paris or Bernard Gui.
scribes and archivists. Literary estates in Germany in the Fifteenth Century
In the course of the
14th and 15th centuries, some authors working in Germany started creating
manu-scripts containing their own works for their personal use. These
manuscripts are often partly written by the authors themselves, partly
by scribes working on their behalf. Other authors carefully kept and reworked
their own unfinished works, and had these works bound together with materials
written by others, but pertaining to the unfinished works.
In some miscellaneous
volumes, however, autograph manuscripts have been bound together with
other handwritten documents collected by the author. These documents may
refer to intellectual matters, but also to ecclesiastical and juridical
issues as well as to business and family commitments of the au-thor and
the people in his immediate surroundings. These manuscripts may be considered
as early in-stances of literary estates, bound in one or more volumes.
Literary estates became frequent in the course of the 16th century, not
only in Germany, but in other countries as well.
This particular kind of manuscripts, in its scripts as well in their codicological aspects, can neither be described and analyzed satisfyingly as autograph manuscripts nor as common miscellaneous manuscripts. As their production was closely associated with the biographies of their makers, they should be studied as codices as well as personal documents.
scribes before c. 1100: books, texts, scripts.
My paper investigates a group of manuscripts copied before c. 1100 - that is, before the transition from mainly ecclesiastical contexts of book production to the distinction of roles and systems that took place during the revival of the cities in the Late Middle Ages - by scribes whose status of laymen is explicitly declared in the colophon or can be reconstructed on the basis of the documentary evidence.
I will focus on the textual typologies and the codicological and palaeographical features of the books copied by lay scribes. They will be compared with manuscripts of certain ecclesiastical origin, in order to highlight preferences in the choice of the texts, differences and similarities in the codicological data (dimensions, mise en page ), graphic education, skills and habits. I hope that the data so collected will help in determining the origin of other books whose ecclesiastic origin is doubtful, and in clarifying the potential intervention of scribes not stricltly connected to the ecclesiastical writing centres.
MS GKS 4 2° of
the Royal Library, Copenhagen, a Bible in three volumes made for the Cathedral
of Ham-burg at the initiative of the dean Bertoldus who also financed
part of its production, is the result of a high degree of planning and
extraordinary craftsmanship. It is best known for a series of images show-ing
the main stages in the production of the medieval book. It was completed
in 1255. It survived fatal events in Hamburg, including a devastating
fire in 1284. It left Hamburg half a millennium later, when it was offered
for sale at an auction of manuscripts and printed books in the Chapter
library and ac-quired by the Royal Library in Copenhagen.
I have in the past focused on some of the subtleties that reflect the intelligent plan and creative ideas behind the process. In this paper I shall concentrate on deviations rather than the straight lines of the production. What happened when errors or mistakes were detected? What happened when Bertoldus ceased to supply financing for the project? What does the distribution of texts in the three volumes tell about the planning? Who composed the verses of dedication to the Blessed Virgin that occurs in each of the volumes, who copied it, and what does it tell about the production of the Bible? By studying aberrations and incoherencies in the product, we may understand the ambitions of the plan and intentions better.
scripta all'Ars figurata: Raimondo Lullo (1239-1316) e la tradizione figurata
Raymond Lull (1239-1316)
was born in Mallorca during the period in wich the island, claimed back
by the Aragon kindom after centuries of Arab rule, was facing problems
caused by the evangelization and also by the necessity of achieving a
peaceful cohabitation of a Muslim majority and a large number of Jews.
Loking at the work of this out of the ordinary individual it is fundamental
to take into account the historical context.
Lull's thought, already
outlined in the Llibre de contemplació (1270 ca.) was then rerworked
in the most precise Ars inventiva veritatis (1289) and was given a finished
form with the Tabula generalis (1294). Arbores, sketches of elements,
cosmological representation - typical of medieval culture - are plied
to the Art, pairing the discussive aspect with a complex system of schematic
combinations, of figurae circulares and of mobile multicolored wheels
(rotae). The Art explains all the explainable and required expert scribes
able to create manuscripts where text, imagines, drawings and simbols
are all correlated.
graphic competence have been little studied; is certain that his knowledge
of latin was barely adequate; he travelled continuosly and where he stayed
the longest (Paris, Montpellier) he often used helpers to whom he intrusted
the final realisation of his work. The study of the oldest manu-scripts
perhaps related to his entourage (74 mss.) has evidenced the lack of paleographical
and codi-cological analysis and the difficulty in separating Lullus from
My intention is to follow the codicological and paleographical figurative aspects in these manuscripts in order to verify their degree of authenticity as well as any eventual discrepancis (for ex. differences between catalan and latin translation / tradition of the same work).
del bilinguismo. Contesti culturali e mise en page dei codici greco-latini
dal tardo medioevo al Cinquecento
L'édition bilingue, le livre conçu pour accueillir des textes en alphabets différents, est pour le Moyen-Âge un héritage de l'antiquité classique et chrétienne. Notre communication se concentre sur la mise en page des livres bilingues à partir du Moyen-Âge tardif jusqu'au XVIe siècle et à la complète affirma-tion de l'imprimerie : dans les centres de la nouvelle culture humanistique des nouveaux volumes sont réalisés avec nouveaux textes, destinés à nouveaux publiques et à nouvelles fonctions. En mettant l'ac-cent sur quelques exemples significatifs et sur les moments cruciales de la 'bataille du Grec à la Renais-sance', il serait possible d'évaluer en détail les différents 'stratégies du bilinguisme' : les interactions entre le différents artisans du livre, comment le bilinguisme est réglé en rapport aux finalités de l'exemplaire, en jouant un rôle sur l'écriture et la mise en page.
in Medieval Manuscripts from the Kingdoms of Leon and Castille (12th-15th
tries to make a global study on the use and characteristics of the rubrics
used in the Spanish codices of the kingdoms of Leon and Castile. We start
with the definition of the polysemic sense of this term and its typology,
although we will focus on the rubrics as chapter heading, which serve
to structure and organize texts and as references for an easier reading.
We make a diachronic and comparative analysis of the procedures used during
the XII, XIII, XIV and XV Centuries.
In the peninsular
West, the chosen historical framework makes necessary to include codices
belonging to different cultural and palaeographical traditions that shared
that space, as manuscripts copied in Visigothic script (in force in northern
Spain in the early Twelfth Century and sacralized between the mozarabs
of Toledo until the Thirteenth Century), in Caroline, Proto-Gothic, in
Gothic and, finally, in Humanistic writing. All these hand writings are
subjected to a comparative analysis.
The aspects to study
are related to the palaeographical and codicological categories of this
book tech-nique, so our intention is
We use as a basis
a wide range of Spanish manuscripts of different textual nature, made
in the king-doms of Leon and Castile: chronicles, scientific books, theological,
biblical, manuscripts of law, poetry, didactics, liturgical, etc.
distinction du livre : les scribes et les écritures de colophons
Colophons are not only the consequence of scribal choice, but a specific part in the book, even if at the edge. This paper will analyze the graphic differences between colophons and the copied texts (script, formality, layout, color) and correlate them with internal factors (date, language, text genre) as well as to the co-presence of other script variations (e.g. for titles, rubrics, and incipits; tables of content; mar-gins) and the hierarchy between the script that they imply. Based on the French catalogues of dated manuscripts, this study demonstrates that the changes of script occur frequently (almost every second colophon) and raise the colophon above the normal text, creating a distinction within the book.
Speaks Czech. Correlation between Text, Layout and Images in Czech Bibles
of the 15th Century.
The Czech edition of the Bible gained particular importance with the appearance of the theologian Jan Hus (1369-1415). Hus and his followers understood the Holy Scripture as the Word of God, which every individual believer had to follow (without mediation of the Church). But the use of the vernacular was not alone a religious and social statement: it was always associated with didactic objectives - and these in turn with "illustration" of the subject matter through images. This now meant for scribes of illus-trated Czech Bible editions that they had, together with the illuminators, to develop new approaches to the page layout. Not only do the text lengths differ from Latin to Czech: The tradition of announcing each Bible book with highlighted initials could cause practical problems when inserting scenes: Not every letterform was a suitable frame for figural scenes. Scribes and illuminators have found new and creative solutions, some of them were so successful that they were even taken over by letterpress. Chal-lenges, communication problems and solutions will be demonstrated with selected examples in this presentation.
and Text-History in Terence
I propose to examine a case where details of presentation have large consequences for text-history, namely the earlier medieval tradition of Terence. Attention will be concentrated on the following manuscripts as being the best representatives of the two principal strains within this tradition.
The gamma-class and the delta-class, it is recognized, must each descend from a distinct late-antique exemplar. A subscription Calliopius recensui or Calliopius recensuit is found at the ends of plays in both groups. For that reason scholarship has assumed that the two late-antique fountainheads of tradition are genetically related, both deriving from a single copy corrected by one Calliopius. The assumption has so far passed without challenge, but a close look at the manuscript sources gives much reason to reject it. Presentation of most paratexts-didascalic notices, verse hypotheses, scene-headings, incipits, explicits-is rigourously consistent from one comedy to another within each manuscript. It is also consistent on the whole from one manuscript to another within each class. Matters stand very differently, however, with the subscription, the circumstances of whose occurrence vary from one codex to another and even from one leaf to another within the same codex. Sometimes it appears in a display script, sometimes in the text-script, sometimes in ink, sometimes in red pigment, sometimes on the same line as the end of the text proper, sometimes below, or within the explicit or even the front matter to the following comedy. Most importantly, none of the ninth-century manuscripts shows it everywhere by the first hand, and three of our manuscripts (Vat. lat. 3868, Paris lat. 7900 and ibid. 10304), show it by the first hand nowhere at all. All this strongly suggests that the subscription Calliopius recensui was not in-herited along with the text, but infiltrated the manuscripts by stages, the first hand of Vat. lat. 3868 reflecting the most primitive state of affairs, the Bodleian manuscript (latest among the best witnesses) the most evolved state, with complete consistency not obtained even in this latter. Far from being common patrimony of the gamma-class and delta-classes, the subscription is a latecomer to both, and no stemmatic claim should be made on its basis.
di Dura Europos
nella storia della scrittura latina
L'oggetto di questo
intervento intende sottolineare l'importanza fondamentale dei papiri di
Dura per ricostruire la storia della scrittura latina nel momento di passaggio
dalla scrittura comune classica alla nuova scrittura comune. In particolare
intendo affrontare la pluralità di esiti grafici, che vedono, nell'arco
di 50 anni, una accanto all'altra, due scelte grafiche fondamentali. Da
una parte abbiamo una scrittura in continuità con la scrittura
comune classica, piuttosto rapida, che utilizza le varianti di lettera
più corsive, che garantiscono la possibilità di lunghe catene
di legature dall'alto ad angolo scrittura che ha un esito alto in una
stilizzatissima corsiva di grande modulo P. Dura 59 che
è il più antico testimone di scelte grafiche che si canonizzano
nelle litterae caelestes): sono gli esiti di quella corsiva che
Mallon ritiene venga ad esaurirsi con il III secolo. Accanto a questi
esiti si registra anche anche la pre-senza di testimonianze in cui convivono
soluzioni rapide, corsive, e soluzione posate, un momento di grande creatività
ed elaborazione grafica, checostituisce quel serbatoio di forme dal quale,
circa 40-50 anni dopo, saranno selezionati in serie coerente gli esiti
posati che caratterizzano la nuova scrittura comune (e questo direttamente