St-Gall (CH), 11 – 14 septembre 2013
Le scriptorium • The Scriptorium
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Proving the Existence of a Scriptorium: The Case of the Early South Italian Liturgical Rolls (Saec. X ex.) and the (Hitherto Unidentified) Scriptorium at Benevento from which They Came.

Duke University, USA

Scholarship today on the South Italian Exultet and other Rolls in Beneventan script has not recognized a paradox in an important area of the field: on the one hand, it is believed that the tenth-century Bishop (later Archbishop) Landulf I of Benevento played a large role in the development of liturgical rolls (surviving examples from Benevento in the Casanatense (Rome) and Vatican Libraries), while, on the other hand, it is doubted that the cathedral of Benevento under his rule had a scriptorium of its own. ( Certainly, as to the latter point, evidence has not before been brought forward to show the existence of a scriptorium in that period.) The liturgical requirements of this great liturgical innovator (cf. CIPL Topic 2a) render this interpretation (of no scriptorium of his own) hard to accept.
The group of MSS labeled, in the standard study (La cathédrale de Bénévent, 1999), as "Manuscrits d'origine et/ou de provenance 'Bénévent' non assurée," has never been carefully examined. A close palaeographical study demonstrates that six of the MSS on that list --and still preserved in the Biblioteca Capitolare of the city-- dating from the late 10th century or 10th/11th (nos. 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15 --chiefly liturgical homiliaries) were written (the text) by a single scribe. His style is unlike that of any other Beneventan script center identified down to this time. This fact strongly suggests that in fact the Benevento origin as well as provenance of this group is, in fact, quite "assured." To this group may be added a number of others (such as Benevento 8 and 18) in a very similar style. In this fashion one can build up a picture of the existence of a scriptorium (CIPL Topic 3a) at Benevento in the second half of the 10th century and at the threshold of the 11th.
But this is not the whole story. Certain ones of the six manuscripts (e.g. Benevento 13) have incipits and explicits in a type of fine, slender Beneventan script --these incipits and explicits also have never been studied-- that is the same as the script type of the liturgical rolls of Archbishop Landulf I. The presence of this script-type seems to tie liturgical rolls and liturgical homiliaries together as representing a single scriptorium And where more reasonable to localize this scriptorium than in the Duomo over which Landulf presided? It seems that palaeographical study of these manuscripts can fill a gap in our knowledge of the history of the development of liturgical rolls and in the history of the cathedral at Benevento.

The Production of Liturgical Books for the Twelfth-Century Parish Church - Where and How?

University of Erlangen

There is widespread scholarly agreement that the local church in the Latin West underwent a period of radical change in organisation, liturgy, and pastoral practice over the course of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Not least of these changes was the formation of what we today recognise as parishes as the basic unit of territorial and personal organisation. The liturgical aspect of parish-formation has received relatively little attention. In part, this is because liturgical manuscripts from eleventh- and twelfth-century local/parish churches are scarce and difficult to identify; in part, surely, because they are often scribally and artistically low-grade - grotty, rapidly written, and with little or no decoration. In this paper, I nonetheless propose to begin looking at what material there is, and - where the evidence proves too elusive - to speculate on where the scribes who produced it were active. Questions which need to be asked, and (if possible) answered, include the following: how can the service books of parish churches be identified? Are they palaeographically or codicologically distinctive? In which contexts were they produced? What was the role of organised religious communities (cathedral chapters, monasteries, houses of canons regular) in supplying the local secular church with service books? The paper will be based on a project on parish-formation which I am undertaking from the autumn of 2012 onwards. I will use examples from the Kingdom of the Germans, and propose, preliminarily, to focus on the archdiocese of Salzburg.

Seeing scriptoria in scraps: Norwegian manuscript fragments and their historical context

University of Bergen

The knowledge of medieval scriptoria in western Scandinavia is limited for several reasons. Most importantly, survival of medieval manuscripts is poor, particularly in the case of Norway, where no monastic library or major book collection survived the Reformation and general turmoil of the sixteenth-century. In fact, only 10-15 Latin manuscripts and ca. 50 in the vernacular survive known to have been used in Norway survive today. The acquisition of large numbers of manuscripts by the royal administration of Denmark-Norway for binding of accounts, both contributed to their destruction and resulted in their partial survival. Accounts from ca 1550-1650 left ca. 15 000 single fragments from medieval manuscripts for the two countries combined, approximately 6000 of these from Norwegian bailiwicks.
What, if anything, can these fragments tell us about scriptoria and book production? The fragmentary state of the source material means that work cannot simply start with analysing and comparing manuscripts. First we need to "establish" the manuscripts, and learn as much as we can about them based on a few scraps of parchment. A large number of fragments must first be grouped into units of different degrees of affinity: either coming from the same manuscript; coming from different manuscripts but featuring same scribe or music scribe, or showing similar styles of writing or characteristic palaeographical features. The process involves a considerable amount of frustration, not least when crucial pieces of a book, which for instance could reveal whether the book was monastic or not, are missing. With well over 99% of the manuscript material lost, the image of Norwegian scriptoria may never be more than a rough sketch. However, as Lilli Gjerløw, Michael Gullick and others have shown in the case of the scribe of the Old Norwegian Homily book (ca. 1200), it is possible to come a long way: A few fragments from a missal two antiphoners in that case contributed to contextualising the oldest vernacular surviving manuscript from Norway, and the identification of several hands working together indicated the existence of one particular scriptorium in Bergen.
In this paper I will show other examples of groups of fragments and related manuscripts which either point to a local scriptorium, or show signs of belonging to already established scriptoria outside of Norway. The paper in general will address the two first questions under Interpretation: How can one prove the existence of a scriptorium, and how can one demonstrate the attribution of a manuscript to a particular scriptorium? The paper will be presented along with a power-point-presentation with images of the fragments and/or manuscripts referred to in the text.

Between Middle Ages and modern era.
Some remarks on the writing and scriptories in the reformed Franciscan monasteries in Bohemia in the end of 15th and beginning of 16th centuries.

Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic

The paper will focus on the phenomenon of scriptories in the reformed Franciscan monasteries in the late medieval Bohemia.
1.It is generally known, that religious life in the late medieval Bohemia was predominated by utraquist confession. The hussite wars during the second and third decennium of the 15th century caused the extinction of many monasteries including the centers of written culture. On the other side, certain new phenomena appeared. Introduction of reformed Franciscans (de observantia) into the country during the 2nd half of the 15th century was probably the most important. The Franciscans founded several new monasteries or renewed older ones (Prague 1461, Bechyne 1491, Horaždovice 1504, Plzen 1460, Tachov 1460, Kadan 1473, Jindrichuv Hradec 1457, probably Most), even the Bohemian-Moravian province was created in the year 1469, several decennia before the reformed Franciscans were approved by pope Leo X. (1517).
2. In the milieu of those monasteries two important groups of manuscripts are preserved: the manuscripts written in the monastery of Bechyne and those from the monastery of Kadan. There are also mentions in the sources informing about writing in other monasteries, like Horaždovice in the south of the country and Plzen and Tachov in western Bohemia.
3. Some of the preserved manuscripts were analysed from the point of view of art history (the manuscripts of Kadan by Marie Studnicková), or, more generally, from the point of view of codicology or history of libraries (the history of medieval libraries in western Bohemia by Ivan Hlavácek). From the paleographic point of view, no research has been prepared yet, even though the manuscripts show remarks of the different script and writing tradition in the comparison with the development in late medieval Bohemia.
4. The analysis of the writing and book production in both monasteries based on the preserved manuscripts will contribute to two major topics: - a. How was the writing organised, who participated in it, and for whom the manuscripts were written - b. About coexistence and mutual influence of traditional script and writing in Bohemia and new elements brought by Franciscans.

Scrivere nelle cattedrali della Toscana occidentale. Pisa, Lucca e Volterra nei secoli X-XII

Università di Siena, sede di Arezzo

Il paper intende prendere presentare i primi risultati dell'analisi della produzione libraria manoscritta delle città di Lucca, Pisa e Volterra ragionevolmente ascrivibile all'ambiente della cattedrale e della canonica della cattedrale tra X e XII secolo. I problemi principali che si presentano allo studioso nello svolgimento di questo tema sono:
- l'assenza di notizie sull'esistenza e il funzionamento di scuole cattedrali
- La difficoltà nell'individuare una produzione sistematica in loco di manoscritti (scriptoria) per Pisa e Volterra, mentre qualche notizia maggiore si conosce per Lucca.
- L'estrema frammentarietà della conservazione
I dati di partenza della nostra analisi sono:
- La raccolta di frammenti di manoscritto e manoscritti integrali ragionevolmente attribuibili all'ambiente cattedrale
- La conoscenza della cultura grafica del clero cattedrale parzialmente nota attraverso: sottoscrizioni; note di possesso e inventari; documentazione non notarile
- La possibilità di descrivere alcuni scriptoria attivi nei secoli in questione di ambito monastico o canonicale (o ambienti scrittori non comprendenti le cattedrali, ma aventi contatti con esse).
L'obbiettivo che ci poniamo con la nostra analisi consiste nella risposta alle seguenti domande: esiste un processo di scrittura sistematico di manoscritti in cattedrale e una coesa comunità di scrittura? In che misura ciò si verifica nelle tre diverse città? Cosa è giunto fino a noi?
Per quanto concerne la proposta del convegno, la parte su cui vogliamo rivolgere la nostra attenzione è la terza ("interpretazione"), in particolare ciò che concerne la definizione di scriptorium (punti a, b, c), attraverso la risposta alle seguenti domande: quali elementi materiali, grafici, funzionali devono presentarsi contemporaneamente per definire una produzione facente parte di uno scriptorium? Quale grado di sistematicità ha la produzione degli ambienti episcopali e canonicali delle tre città in rapporto ad altri scriptoria più strutturati (come per esempio quelli monastici)? Quali abilità e competenze venivano utilizzate?
L'inventariazione, descrizione e analisi del materiale manoscritto contribuisce alla definizione di una geografia scrittoria e produttiva che per quanto concerne la Toscana occidentale è ancora frammentaria e concentrata su produzioni più sistematiche di ambito essenzialmente monastico.

Scriptores de scriptoriis : mentions de " scriptoria " dans les colophons latins, les mots et les réalités

Bibliothèque royale de Belgique

Les colophons seront considérés ici comme l'une des sources décrivant des faits sur l'existence de " scriptoria " liés à des institutions religieuses ou laïques. L'absence du mot scriptorium dans les colophons ne doit pas empêcher de considérer les réalités concrètes qui se cachent derrière ces petits textes souvent très formalisés. Il existe toutefois un net contraste entre le Haut Moyen Âge, dont les colophons, plus rares, décrivent de manière souvent floue la situation de scriptoria attestés par ailleurs, et la fin du Bas Moyen Âge, caractérisée par une production plus individualisée de l'écrit, dans le clergé séculier comme régulier -donc en opposition à l'image d'Epinal du " scriptorium monastique " organisé- mais dont les colophons très nombreux sont souvent assez précis sur la réalité des situations, mentionnant par exemple le lieu géographique ou institutionnel de la transcription, le statut et des éléments de prosopographie des acteurs de la production livresque (auteurs, copistes, commanditaires, etc.), les types de relations ayant existé entre des institutions et des personnes autour de la production du livre manuscrit, ainsi qu'un vocabulaire technique qui permet d'entrevoir la nature et la répartition des tâches, etc. Dans le contexte de cette production individualisée, c'est donc davantage dans l'existence de réseaux de collaboration et dans la description des modalités de celle-ci que transparaîtra la notion de " scriptorium ".
Une typologie des informations fournies par les colophons sera établie et illustrée -à défaut pour le moment de pouvoir établir des statistiques sur une grande échelle- par l'explication d'exemples particulièrement significatifs qui seront remis dans le contexte de la production écrite de leur époque et/ou de leur région.

The Dominican Scriptorium at St Jacques, and its production of liturgical exemplars

University of Cambridge

Following the reform of the Dominican liturgy, completed by Humbert of Romans in 1256, there was a concerted effort at the Parisian convent of St Jacques to produce several 'exemplars': comprehensive compendia comprising all the books needed for liturgical celebration, which would facilitate the dissemination of the revised liturgy. Three such exemplars survive today: one originally kept at the St Jacques convent in Paris, a smaller portable exemplar which belonged to the Master General of the Dominican Order, and a fragmentary exemplar made for the province of Spain.
Although some copying may have been undertaken by Dominican brothers, the majority of the work was most probably completed by a group of professional scribes working under the supervision of one of the Dominican brothers. Despite the involvement of many different copyists within each exemplar, the results are remarkably homogenous, probably owing to the strict implementation of particular stylistic choices, such as consistent writing frames. Through a codicological study of the exemplars, and a palaeographical study of the notation in particular, I shall demonstrate that the exemplars were made by a cohesive group of professional copyists, all adhering to certain stylistic guidelines, and working together within the convent to produce the exemplars for the Dominicans' liturgical needs. As such, I shall address the issue of personnel and organisation of copying within the Dominican Scriptorium at St Jacques, Paris in the third quarter of the thirteenth century.

Gab es im spätmittelalterlichen Pressburg ein Skriptorium?


Prassburg (slow. Bratislava) - eine Grenzstadt des Königreich Ungarns mit starken wirtschaftlichen und sozialen (aber auch kulturellen) Beziehungen zum österreichischen Donauraum. Die erhaltenen Hss., die nach Pressburg lokalisiert wurden, sind nur ca. zwei Dutzend und stammen vom Anfang des 14. bis zum Anfang des 16. Jhs. Die Entstehung von einem Teil von Ihnen wurde im einheimischen Zisterzienserinnenkloster gesucht - neuere Forschungen ergaben jedoch, dass fast alle mit dem dortigen Kollegiatkapitel (bzw. der Kapitel- und Pfarrkirche) verbunden sind.
Man kann die "Pressburger Codices" in mehrere Gruppen reihen:
1) die ältesten Einzelstücke (1. Drittel des 14. Jhs., aus Gran oder Pressburg),
2) die 1. Blütezeit des Pressburger "Skriptoriums" (1340-er Jahre),
3) Einzelstücke aus der Zeit Sigismunds von Luxemburg,
4) die 2. Blütezeit des Pressburger "Skriptoriums" (konservative Gotik - 2. Hälfte des 15. Jhs.),
5) Durchbruch der Renaissance (nur Fragmente erhalten - Anfang des 16. Jhs.).
Der Weg zur Erforschung eines potentiellen Skriptorium:
1) explizite Erwähnung und Autorenschaft durch einheimische Schreiber (Kanoniker oder Skriptoren): (die Hss. des 14. Jhs. meistens anonym, ab Ende des 14. Jhs. bereits erste Namen - die zeigen eindeutig, dass die Hss. von oder für das Kollegiatkapitel sowohl in der Institution selbst entstanden sind als auch an auswertige Skriptoren /im 15. Jh. sogar Laie/ vergeben wurden).
2) Die Komparation der einzelnen Hss.-Gruppen miteinander erlaubt keine eindeutigen Rückschlüsse auf die Frage, ob es ein Skriptorium gegeben hat.
- eindeutige Beziehungen nur in der Liturgie,
- Verwandschaften in der Hs.-Verzierung (z. B. künstlerische Abhängigkeit der sgt. Pressburger Missalia I. und "A").
3) Analyse der Hss. innerhalb von "ihren Gruppen": die Schreiberhände zeigen einheitliche Schriftformen - ist aber bereits mehr das Ergebnis der Uniformisierung der gotischen Schrift als einer lokalen Schulung.

The DigiPal Project for Late Anglo-Saxon Script

Dept. Digital Humanities, King's College London

Numerous scholars to date have tried to attribute eleventh-century vernacular English minuscule to scriptoria but this has proven extremely difficult, due not only to a lack of clearly localisable examples but also to the significant variation in scribal hands. The resulting attributions have therefore often been overturned to the detriment also of historical and literary scholarship. The question here, as Albert Derolez has asked, is how to be 'clear and convincing' in such uncertainty. His proposed answer led to a surge in so-called 'digital' palaeography, as represented by Kodikologie und Paläographie im Digitalen Zeitalter, but it is still unclear how (or if) these computer-generated numbers can be used for attribution or for the study of scribal practice at particular scriptoria.
The DigiPal project (http://digipal.eu) represents an alternative approach, aiming to provide material as evidence for investigation and argument. The website will give detailed searchable descriptions of the complete corpus of (approximately) 1200 known surviving examples of vernacular script from the eleventh century, with high-quality images of about half of these, all freely available online. The material will be open to detailed searches and visualisation, and this free availability of description, data and image allows one not only to explore this complete corpus but also to present evidence more effectively than before.
The detailed description and capacity for searching raises many challenges terminology and how to represent details of handwriting precisely and unambiguously. To this end a new model for handwriting has been developed which allows one to explore not only features of particular graphs on the page, but also characteristics of individuals and groups of individuals, for example those attributed to a given monastic community or scriptorium. It also allows one to characterise features of style across letters in a script, such as the way that minims or ascenders are constructed, again with clear implications for the characterisation of regional practices and house styles.
The presentation will demonstrate the DigiPal system, with emphasis on its use for research into scribal practice in late Anglo-Saxon scriptoria. The model will be explained in brief, and the discussion will keep in view the context of methodological questions about quantitative and qualitative evaluation of handwriting and how arguments about this might be presented in a clearer and more convincing way. The demonstration system will also be available for testing and feedback throughout the Colloque.
A 'live' version of the DigiPal system will be on the presenter's laptop computer and this will be used with a normal data projector to present images of manuscript pages, palaeographical features and other related evidence from the corpus.

Un couteau dans la main gauche ? Organisation du scriptorium et correction des textes d'après le feuillet de corrections du ms. Paris, Bibl. nat. de france, Arsenal, ms. 302

Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, CNRS

Les traces de collation dans les manuscrits médiévaux sont fréquentes (grattages, ajouts…), les mentions explicites du processus de correction (r, correctum…) le sont moins. Tout à fait exceptionnels sont les documents qui permettent de reconstituer le processus complexe de correction, qui fait intervenir plusieurs acteurs. Tel est le cas du feuillet préliminaire du ms. Paris, Bibl. de l'Arsenal, ms. 302 [Fontenay, XIIe s.], contenant les Enarrationes in psalmos de saint Augustin.
Écrit sur le recto seul, il a anciennement servi de contregarde et contient une suite de paragraphes numérotés par des chiffres romains et composés de séquences incohérentes de mots et lettres.
L'analyse révèle que chaque séquence est une correction apportée par grattage dans le manuscrit et prouve que le travail d'emendatio se fait en plusieurs temps. Le scribe n'a pas besoin d'écrire " avec un couteau dans la main gauche ". Pendant ou après la copie, le copiste ou un relecteur signale les passages dont le sens semble corrompu, en traçant en marge la lettre " r " pour " require ". Ce même lecteur, ou un second, compare alors ces passages avec autre exemplaire du texte et il dresse la liste des corrections à apporter sur un feuillet séparé dans l'ordre des corrections : c'est le feuillet qui est relié en tête du ms. 302. La correction n'est pas portée immédiatement dans le texte, mais d'abord copiée en marge, avant d'être réécrite sur le passage fautif après grattage. Ensuite, la correction marginale elle-même devait être grattée.
La mise en page du feuillet de correction montre également que le travail se faisait avant la reliure, mais sur cahiers signés, car le numéro de chaque paragraphe correspond à celui du cahier où se trouvent les corrections. Parmi les corrections prévues certaines sont très brèves (une seule lettre) et l'on peut s'étonner de cette étape intermédiaire, qui consiste à faire figurer toutes les corrections sur un même feuillet, plutôt qu'à indiquer directement en marge les corrections nécessaires.
Ces corrections minuscules, l'étude paléographique et la conservation du feuillet contribuent, enfin, à en faire la preuve de l'existence d'un atelier organisé en milieu monastique - un scriptorium - et d'un processus de correction : seul un groupe suffisamment établi et doté d'une organisation rigoureuse, avec des processus de production définis pour garantir la qualité du résultat final, peut s'imposer des opérations multiples avec division et répartition des tâches : certains avaient seuls le droit de porter directement la main sur le livre manuscrit ; d'autres étaient responsables du contenu du texte. Cela signifie donc l'existence d'un scriptorium établi et pérenne. La similitude de la main du texte et de celle des corrections ainsi que l'agencement par cahier permettent de conclure sur l'activité de correction et d'y voir une phase intégrée à la production originelle du manuscrit et à inférer l'existence d'un groupe organisé pour la correction.

Bedeutung und Organisation des Scriptoriums im frühmittelalterlichen Kloster St. Gallen - das Zeugnis der Geschichtsschreibung

St. Gallen

Die St. Galler Historiographie des Frühmittelalters liefert eine Fülle von Nachrichten über das Scriptorium und die Buchherstellung im Kloster. Als Hauptquellen für unsere Fragestellung sind die "Casus sancti Galli" Ratperts und seiner Fortsetzer, insbesondere die berühmte erste Fortsetzung von Ekkehart IV. († um 1060), zu untersuchen. Auch die "Gesta Karoli Magni" des Notker Balbulus und nach Möglichkeit weitere erzählende Texte sind heranzuziehen. Mit einzelnen Aspekten des Themas hat sich der Autor bereits bei früheren Gelegenheiten befasst. Die damals gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sollen nun vertieft und anhand des Fragenkatalogs des CIPL-Kolloquiums differenziert werden. Dabei beschränken wir uns strikt auf die narrativen Quellen. Die reiche Handschriftenüberlieferung St. Gallens, ihre paläographischen, codicologischen und buchkünstlerischen Elemente wie auch die Aussagen des St. Galler Klosterplans werden in die Untersuchung nicht miteinbezogen; sie sollen anderen Referaten vorbehalten sein.
Zu den folgenden Punkten des Gesamtkonzeptes wird das Referat insbesondere einen Beitrag liefern können:
1. Wort und Begriff: Vorkommen und Bedeutung des Begriffs scriptorium und seiner Synonyme (mit Hilfe der Wortkonkordanzen und Wortregister)
2. Fakten: Die Arbeitsplätze des Scriptoriums im Kloster - Personal und Arbeitsorganisation des Scriptoriums - Die Bedürfnisse des klösterlichen Lebens an Chorbüchern, gelehrter Literatur usw. - Buchproduktion und ihr Bezug zur Klosterschule (Lehre und Ausbildung) - Kopie und Weitergabe von Texten als geistliche Betätigung.

Lo scriptorum della cattedrale di Verona attraverso l'analisi dei manoscritti delle opere di sant'Agostino

Donatella TRONCA

La relazione che vorrei presentare riguarda lo studio dei manoscritti tardoantichi e altomedievali delle opere di Agostino d'Ippona conservati presso la Biblioteca Capitolare di Verona. Attraverso l'analisi materiale, paleografica e storica dei sette codici contenenti varie opere dell'Ipponate, è stato possibile rilevare come quattro di essi siano stati verosimilmente prodotti proprio dallo scriptorium veronese in età carolingia. Questo tipo di approccio ha reso possibili nuove considerazioni sulla storia culturale della Cattedrale e sulla necessità di produrre libri che avessero una destinazione liturgica, oltre a quella di fornire la biblioteca stessa di un patrimonio bibliografico attraverso l'attività di copia dei testi. Ci si è potuti così esprimere in modo più fondato anche su figure, come quella dell'arcidiacono Pacifico, e sullo scriptorium veronese, che la storiografia moderna aveva contribuito a circondare di un'aura che non esiterei a definire mitica. In questa prospettiva, un'importanza centrale ha assunto anche lo studio della sedimentazione delle scritture marginali come traccia tangibile delle pratiche di lettura.

Welche Skriptorien? Zu Stand und Perspektiven der Skriptorien-Forschung in Österreich

Kommission für Schrift- und Buchwesen des Mittelalters an der ÖAW, Wien

Auf österreichischem Gebiet findet sich eine große Anzahl von Klöstern und Stiften, die im Mittelalter über mehr oder wenige große Bibliotheken und Skriptorien verfügten oder verfügt haben müssen. Noch heute sind viele dieser Bibliotheken in situ erhalten und erlitten im Zeitalter der Säkularisierung im Gegensatz zu anderen Ländern nur mäßige Verluste. Mit dieser an sich günstigen Ausgangslage für einschlägige Untersuchungen kontrastiert der Umstand, dass bisher nur sehr wenige systematische Studien (zumindest nicht in Form größerer Monographien) über mittelalterliche österreichische Skriptorien (B. Bischoffs südostdeutsche Schreibschulen oder C. Pfaff über das Skriptorium Mondsee) publiziert wurden und auch kleinere Studien zum Teil unbefriedigend sind oder nur Detailprobleme behandeln. Dies trifft besonders für das Hoch- und noch mehr für das Spätmittelalter zu, für welches kaum Untersuchungen zu existieren scheinen, obwohl die zunehmend breiter werdende Materialbasis einen besseren Zugang zur Fragestellung erwarten ließe.
Der hier vorgeschlagene Beitrag hat das Ziel, den österreichischen Bereich exemplarisch für folgende Fragestellungen auszuwerten:
1) Zunächst soll ein kurzer Überblick über den status quo der Forschung gegeben werden. Damit verbunden sind folgende Fragen: Wie belegen die bisher vorhandenen Studien die Existenz österreichischer Skriptorien (paläographisch, kunstgeschichtlich etc.; gibt es "externe" Quellenbelege)? Welche Größe hatten österreichische Skriptorien und über welche Zeitspannen kann man ihre Existenz bisher nachweisen?
2) Wo sind die Gründe dafür zu suchen, dass auch Sammlungen mit sehr gut erhaltenen Beständen (wie etwa die Stiftsbibliothek von Klosterneuburg, Admont, Heiligenkreuz u. a.) bisher kaum aufgearbeitet sind? Warum sind gerade spätmittelalterliche Bestände (wie etwa in Stift Seitenstetten oder dem Schottenstift in Wien) überhaupt noch nicht untersucht?
3) In welchem Rahmen entstanden bisher Studien zu österreichischen Skriptorien (kunstgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, Katalogisierungsunternehmen etc.)? Wie wird die Erforschung der Skriptorien von der Katalogisierung oder von verschiedenen Formen der Katalogisierung (nach numerus currens, Voll-, Spezial-, Kurzkataloge etc.) beeinflusst?
4) Welche Zukunftsperspektiven ergeben sich aus heutiger Sicht aus den laufenden Katalogisierungsunternehmen sowie aus modernen technischen Hilfsmitteln, die früher noch nicht zur Verfügung standen (etwa Wasserzeichen-Datenbanken, Digitalisierungsprojekte etc.)? Welches Ergebnis verspricht die Einbeziehung neuer Quellengruppen (wie beispielsweise Urkunden), die bisher kaum für die einschlägige Forschung berücksichtigt wurden?

Script, book production and the practice of the Rule at Christ Church, Canterbury in the mid twelfth century

Trinity College, Cambridge

During the mid twelfth century a new generation of scribes at Canterbury perfected a variety of formal minuscule different in its proportions and features of style from the distinctive tradition that had been developed and variously interpreted by scribes there during the late eleventh and earlier twelfth centuries. The new style of minuscule displays features common to much mid-twelfth-century formal handwriting in England, but the degree of similarity in the manner in which the Christ Church scribes traced certain component elements of a number of graphs is striking and perhaps unusual. Close similarity between the hands of scribes working within the same scriptorium is a common although not inevitable phenomenon, but the degree of uniformity found in the handwriting of the surviving books produced by these scribes requires further explanation, especially when compared with the more varied interpretations of the 'Christ Church style' of the late eleventh and earlier twelfth century. This paper examines the handwriting of the scribes in relation to the types of books and documents produced and their functions, and to the wider context of the practice of the monastic life at Christ Church during the mid twelfth century. It will suggest that the uniformity of handwriting may be a consequence not only of shared training within a well-established tradition of formal handwriting but also a more deliberate expression of monastic discipline considered especially appropriate for those books that were of the greatest importance in their communal practice of the Benedictine Rule, such as the Bible, the Psalter, the Martyrology and the Rule itself, as well as for their royal confirmation charters.

Occasional Workshops and Clustered Production of Eleventh-Century Italian Giant Bibles and Patristic Manuscripts

The American Academy in Rome & John Cabot University, Rome

In 2000 Larry Ayres hypothesized that the earliest Italian Giant Bibles had come from a "large export scriptorium" closely associated with Peter Damian and the Roman reform party and devoted to producing monumental copies of biblical, exegetical, and liturgical texts for export to cathedrals and monasteries across Europe. Recently, Marilena Maniaci has suggested an alternative model of production, which acknowledges the often significant diversities within the genre. The Bibbie atlantiche, she proposes, resulted from "a polycentric if also authoritatively directed and coordinated production" of codices-an idea that recalls, without duplicating, Paola Supino Martini's speculation that the scriptorium of St. John Lateran (i.e. the cathedral of Rome and papal residence) had promulgated a prototype Bible in the mid-eleventh century, thus setting new, Church-imposed, pan-European standards for the production of Latin Bibles.
My own studies of the scribal and pictorial hands, prefatory texts, and separable textual units of eleventh-century Italian Giant Bibles have led me to different conclusions. In my view, many of the oldest examples (e.g. Admont, Stiftsbibl., Cod. C-D; Bibl. Apost. Vat., Pal. lat. 3-5; Milan, Ambros. B.47 inf.; Munich, Staatsbibl., Clm 13001; Parma, Bibl. Palatina, Palat. 386; Perugia, Bibl. Augusta, Ms. L. 59) were crafted not by a stable workforce operating in one or more writing offices directed or coordinated by the popes or other ecclesiastical authorities. Instead, I believe, they were made by variable teams of scribes and illustrators assembled on an ad hoc basis to execute individual commissions initiated and funded by a variety of patrons, both ecclesiastical and lay.
This paper will examine palaeographic, codicological, and textual evidence for such commissions, with special attention to 'clustered' projects, those in which an Italian Giant Bible and one or more patristic, exegetical, or liturgical codices were written by the same ensemble of scribes. The paper will focus on the principal manuscripts of Edward Garrison's Early Geometrical Umbro-Roman group (c. 1050-1100) and will consider, above all, the ways in which their texts were apportioned into writing units-that is, textually self-contained sets of contiguous gatherings-for purposes of copying by individual members of the scribal team. The function of these units, I will argue, was not to permit the writing of multiple Bibles simultaneously in the same workshop (i.e. in Ayres's export scriptorium) as some codicologists currently hold but rather to facilitate the speedy production of single Bibles or of small groups of church books that had been commissioned together and which were destined, in some cases, for the same monastery or cathedral.

Colloques internationaux de paléographie latine
Comité international de paléographie latine