XVIIe COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL
DE PALÉOGRAPHIE LATINE

Ljubljana, 7 – 10 septembre 2010
Les autographes du Moyen Âge
Medieval Autograph Manuscripts
INDEX Sessions d'actualité CIPL – Accueil

RÉSUMÉS DES COMMUNICATIONS
(sessions thématiques)

Eef OVERGAAUW (Berlin):

Comment reconnaître un autographe du Moyen Âge ?

Le catalogage approfondi des manuscrits dans les collections publiques aussi bien que les recherches paléographiques et codicologiques ont sensiblement augmenté le nombre connu d’autographes du Moyen Âge et de la Renaissance. Une partie mineure seulement de ces autographes est signé par son auteur. La plupart des autographes ne porte pas de colophon qui permet de décider l’identité d’auteur et de copiste.

Plusieurs aspects paléographiques et codicologiques permettent cependant de constater qu’un manuscrit est certainement ou probablement autographe (ou partiellement autographe):

  • La comparaison de l’écriture d’un manuscrit d’un copiste anonyme avec l’écriture d’un manuscrit signé par son auteur;
  • Des renvois à l’intérieur d’un manuscrit qui permettent de décider l’identité du copiste avec l’auteur d’un (ou plusieurs) des textes contenus dans ce manuscrit;
  • La présence d’additions marginales, interlinéaires ou sur des feuillets ajoutés qui sont nécessairement (ou probablement) de la main de l’auteur lui-même;
  • La présence de plusieurs couches dans la composition d’un texte à l’intérieur d’un manuscrit copié par un seul copiste;
  • Le caractère inachevé d’un manuscrit (feuillets entiers ou parties de feuillets laissées sans écriture, correspondant avec des lacunes dans le texte);
  • Une division particulière du travail entre plusieurs copistes qui permet de constater que l’un des ces copistes était nécessairement (ou probablement) l’auteur du texte.

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Teresa DE ROBERTIS (Firenze):

Una mano, tante scritture:
Problemi di metodo nell'identificazione degli autografi

Recenti studi hanno portato alla luce numerosi casi di copisti che hanno usato più scritture: non semplici gradazioni della medesima scrittura, ma generi grafici totalmente differenti. Il fenomeno è di estremo interesse, da molti punti di vista. Il fatto che alcuni copisti medievali dispongano di un repertorio variato di scritture (un nuovo modo di scrivere che si sostituisce al vecchio, ma anche più scritture in sincronia) obbliga ad interrogarsi  sulle modalità di apprendimento della scrittura, sul modo in cui questo repertorio viene formandosi, sul valore, in certo senso programmatico, di ogni loro scelta grafica.  Al tempo stesso si impone una riflessione riguardo al  metodo con cui valutare questa particolare categoria di autografi: cosa ci permette di dire (oltre la sottoscrizione o in assenza di sottoscrizione) che due testimonianze di genere grafico differente sono della stessa mano? in sostanza, esistono nella scrittura tratti personali e permanenti che, al di là delle differenze morfologiche, permettano l'identicazione di una mano?

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J. Peter GUMBERT (Leiden):

Manuscripts of historians

Medieval autographs and author’s manuscripts are rare, but not equally rare in all types of text. Historiography is a genre of which a particularly great number of autographs survive. A number of cases from the Northern Netherlands will be discussed, ranging from the early twelfth-century Egmond Annals to the compilations of Jan van Naaldwijk, early in the sixteenth century. This leads to the question: why are there (not only in the Netherlands) so many historical autographs? and to the answer: because most historical works were never meant for circulation; and if only one copy of a text ever existed, we either do not have it at all, or we have the original.

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Giovanna MURANO (Firenze):

Autografi di dotti italiani (sec. XIII-XVI1):
tra reliquie e monumenti grafici.
Primi risultati della ricerca

Nella Cappella delle reliquie della Basilica di Assisi ed in quella della Cattedrale di Spoleto si conservano due dei più antichi autografi giunti sino a noi, appartengono alla mano di Francesco d’Assisi. Anche san Bonaventura ha lasciato testimonianza della sua scrittura, così come Tommaso d’Aquino, Matteo d’Acquasparta, Bernardino da Siena, sant’Antonino, Girolamo Savonarola. Oltre a quelle di santi ed insigni teologi, sono sopravvissute importanti testimonianze grafiche di artisti quali Beato Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Michelangelo, Giuliano da Sangallo, il Pontormo, Leonardo, Benvenuto Cellini, etc.

Questa relazione intende presentare i primi risultati di una indagine sugli autografi sopravvissuti di dotti italiani vissuti tra il sec. XIII (periodo a cui risalgono le prime testimonianze autografe certe) e la prima metà del Cinquecento. In questo contesto per “autografi” si intendono gli originali approntati dall’autore nelle diverse fasi di scritturazione di un testo (primi abbozzi, minute,  copie a buono con cancellazioni ed integrazioni) e quegli scritti non destinati alla pubblicazione quali appunti e note (diari, zibaldoni e scartafacci). La raccolta che prevede la presentazione di specimina della calligrafia non prende in esame i soli autografi di letterati (poeti e scrittori), ma anche quelli di personalità importanti del mondo scientifico, universitario ed artistico.

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Pádraig A. BREATNACH (Dublin):

Continuity and Change:
Developments in the script and style of some early modern Irish autograph manuscripts

Irish script has a longer history than any other in the Western European tradition, extending over almost a millennium and a half. Its forms are used without distinction for writing in both Latin and the Irish language throughout the Middle Ages. In the second half of the long continuum of its existence (from the 11th century onwards), when writing in Irish predominates, the script presents as a formal pointed minuscule or bookhand; earlier monumental semi-uncial is retained for display, as is a hierarchy of reduced styles for purposes of glossing, etc. Not until the great consolidation of Irish historical and hagiological scholarship in the early modern period does a properly cursive handwriting style develop, derivative of the pointed minuscule but influenced by contemporary Latin and vernacular trends, and this leads to some functional adjustment in the deployment of the more traditional repertoire of styles. This paper will illustrate the main developmental changes by reference to a group of scholarly seventeenth-century autograph manuscripts showing a virtuoso mastery of the script hierarchy.

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Patrizia CARMASSI (Wolfenbüttel):

« Hoc opus incultus ego lector pneumate fultus... »
Redazione e scrittura di un nuovo modello di lezionario
nella diocesi di Halberstadt (XII secolo).

Un codice conservato nel Duomo di Halberstadt (Lezionario per la messa) presenta interessanti caratteristiche testuali, paleografiche e decorative. La sua datazione è pressoché sicuramente accertabile nell’arco di tempo dal 1131 al 1147. Il donatore del manoscritto è identificabile con Marcwardus diaconus, documentato anche da altre fonti nella diocesi di Halberstadt nella prima metà del sec. XII.

Il codice è composto da tre parti: 1. Testi introduttori. 2. Tractatus de feriis (inedito). 3. Lezionario per la messa. In base a un colofone si ricava che il diacono Marcwardus ha scritto il trattato de feriis e ha concepito una riforma dell’ordine delle letture liturgiche, come si riscontra nel lezionario stesso. Il codice unico che tramanda questi testi risulta scritto da tre differenti scribi. Pertanto si pone la questione: L’autore del trattato è anche lo scriba dello stesso? Le revisioni al testo del lezionario e del trattato sono anch’esse della mano che ha copiato il trattato? In che misura il confronto con altri modelli di scrittura può aiutare a precisare il luogo di produzione del manoscritto, considerato che Marcwardus è morto a Troyes? Metodologicamente si tratta anche di fare un confronto con i documenti contemporanei della diocesi, per stabilire se le caratteristiche della firma autografa di documenti dove Marcwardus è testimone corrisponde a una delle mani degli scribi del codice. La presenza di miniature di alto livello comporta specifiche conoscenze: come si inseriscono questi attori nel piano di realizzazione autografa?

Il contributo si prefigge di illuminare il concreto passaggio dalla concezione alla scrittura del nuovo testo e il grado di partecipazione autografa dell’autore, sia nella stesura che nella revisione dell’opera. Questa rappresenta sicuramente un prodotto originale e ancora inedito della cultura riformatrice del XII secolo in Halberstadt.

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Zdenka HLEDIKOVÁ (Praha):

Petrus Zittaviensis

Petrus Zittaviensis, abbot of cistercian monastery in Zbraslav (Aula regia) is author of chronicle, which is important historiographic resource for the 1st half of 14th century. The second part of the chronicle (BAV, Pal. lat. 950) is preserved in autograph and contains several additions and corrections made by the author. Development of his continuous and disciplined handwriting is possible to be retraced in interval nearly 20 years to the author´s old age and possibly illness. On the contrary manuscript of his "sermones" (Leipzig) is probably not the author's autograph, as was tractated formerly.

Reymbotus de Castro, physician of Charles IV, is a type of intellectual – one generation younger than Petrus Zittaviensis. He was focused on practical application of science. Five of his mansucripts (all preserved in BAV, Pal. lat.) are his autographs. These manuscripts illustrate a very different type of handwriting with larger and very undisciplined module and they are hardly legible.

Comparison of these two handwritings, which were written by two differently focused intellectuals in a quite short period, is an argument for movement in mind and mentality of top Central-European intellectuals.

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Martin ROLAND (Wien):

Ulrich of Lilienfeld
and the "Original" Manuscript of his Concordantiae Caritatis

Ulrich's Concordantiae mark the final point of the typological literature of the Middle Ages. Due to the inseparable combination of image and explanatory text the question of autograph must deal with the script and the illustrations. A close look at the codicology, palaeography and style of Lilienfeld, Stiftsbibliothek, Cod. 151 leads us to propose that it was Ulrich who masterminded the production of the manuscript. He himself started with the writing, then relying on other scribes who might have been Ulrich`s students within the convent. Their share is intensively corrected by Ulrich, and all the rubra and all the lettering within the illustrations are of Ulrich’s own hand throughout the whole manuscript.

How can an author communicate over 1000 topics to an illustrator, especially when we bear in mind that for very many of the topics no pre-existing iconographic models were at hand? Ulrich must necessarily have worked closely together with his artist colleagues, because his own part – clearly to be distinguished – is both insignificant and of low quality.

The “Original” Manuscript of the Concordantiae represents the manuscript type “Author's representative copy”. Because of the direct involvement of the author this type is rare but by no means unique. Especially when text and illustrations are closely connected this type is of some importance. Another prominent example is the copy of the "Klosterneuburger Evangelienwerk" in Schaffhausen, which is the result of intensive cooperation between an excellent illuminator and the so-called "Österreichischer Bibelübersetzer".

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David GANZ (London):  

The Copenhagen Solinus and the problems of Carolingian autographs

A recent article by Veronika von Buren ("Une édition critique de Solin au IXe siècle", Scriptorium 50, 1996, pp. 22-87) has suggested that extant ninth century manuscripts of Solinus can be linked to the Carolingian scholars Lupus of Ferrières, Walahfrid Strabo and Gottschalk. This paper will consider the Copenhagen manuscript of Solinus, GKS 444 2 o a remarkable volume in three columns of over 70 lines, and suggest that it is not, as von Buren supposed, the work of Walahfrid Strabo.

In conclusion I shall try to suggest, using the work of Hartmut Hoffman on Early medieval autographs as a model, what features need to be considered in identifying Carolingian autographs.

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Heidi EISENHUT (Trogen):

Ekkehart IV of St. Gall – composer, corrector and glossator
of Codex Sangallensis 393

The St. Gall monk Ekkehart IV (ca. 980 – after 1057) is known as Abbey chronicler composing one of the most important documents for the contemporary history of St. Gall, the Casus S. Galli, a compilation of anecdotes and traditions concerning distinguished St. Gall monks. In this role, we are able to grasp Ekkehart’s character and try to classify him as a bright and humorous monk with some imaginative, creative and artistic tendencies, a more intuitively than accurately user of sources aiming to present a work showing the fortunia et infortunia of his Abbey.

The oldest manuscript of Ekkehart’s Casus S. Galli dates to the 12th century, so we don’t have CSG-manuscripts showing his handwriting, his own corrections, revisions etc. Nevertheless we are able to grasp the hand of such an interesting person: Scholars mention 62 medieval manuscripts containing traces of his hand; most of them are still treasured in the Abbey Library of St. Gall. All good things come in threes: By fortune of historical transmission the Abbey Library of St. Gall is provided with a manuscript containing a collection of poetic works of Ekkehart IV, which he composed as a monastery pupil of Notker III the German, but which he completed, revised and glossed during a period of about 50 years, between 1010 and 1060 – until the end of his life. This collective manuscript is one of the few known autographs of the early Middle Ages and is known under the name of Liber Benedictionum or Codex Sangallensis 393. The manuscript is digitized and accessible in the Virtual Abbey Library of St. Gall (www.e-codices.unifr.ch/en/list/one/csg/0393).

Based on studies of this rare autograph of the early Middle Ages, my paper will discuss some palaeographical and codicological aspects and some aspects concerning the contents. Emphasis will be placed on the hand and on transformations of handwriting within the period of about 50 years. In addition, focus will be placed on the author’s personality.

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Donatella FRIOLI (Trento):

Manuscripts of Gerhoch of Reichersberg

In the last fifty years, two monographies were consecrated to Gerhoch of Reichersberg, a Bavarian Augustinian-canon who died in 1169; the former edited by Damien van den Eynden, L’oeuvre littéraire de Géroch de Reichersberg (Roma 1957), the other by Peter Classen, Gerhoch von Reichersberg. Eine Biographie (Wiesbaden 1960). The scholars have especially focused on Gerhoch’s biography, his manuscript tradition, structure and finalities of his works (theological and exegetical in content); but they have paid only little attention to his handwriting, ways of abbreviating words, punctuation system, i.e. the palaeographical  aspects  of many manuscripts of his works. Infact, he engaged himself in the writing of his own texts and, for example, the manuscript of the treatise  De eo quod princeps huius mundi iam iudicatus sit (Klagenfurt, Universitätsbibliothek, perg. 10) is surely written by Gerhoch himself and it is a minuta of the treatise (dedicated to Bernard of Clairvaux). The manuscript documents corrections and changes in the text which only the author could make. Peter Classen believes that also the Annales Reicherspergenses in Clm 1090 are composed and written by Gerhoch but I am doubtful.  The remaining works (12 manuscripts of the global Fortleben) are preserved in manuscripts written by a few scribes (always  the same), who are surely other canons of Reichersperg and Gerhoch’s secretaries. They copy Gerhoch’s works from a  minuta of the canon, as it is evident from the typology of scribal errors: a strict connection exists between author and secretaries, but Gerhoch chooses all the codicological features of the manuscripts which conserve his treatises (mise en page, decoration, rubrication…) and pays special attention to the correctness of the copy: so he supervises every manuscript, completes the gaps due to omeoteleuto, changes and enlarges the text, uses more citations, writes himself many rubricae and the name of auctoritates in the margin (an unicum for the time).

The analyse (and comparison) of autographical/idiographical manuscripts not only provides useful information on different graphic uses (ways of abbreviating, interpunction and so on)  between author and secretaries, but gives important data on the different features of Gerhoch’s literary activity.         

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Günther BERNHARD (Graz):

Gottfried von Viterbo und sein Werk Liber universalis
(Paris, Bibl. nat. Fr., ms. lat. 4894)

Magister Gottfried, geboren 1125 in Viterbo, vermutlich väterlicherseits deutscher und mütterlicherseuts italienischer Abstammung, an der Domschule zu Bamberg erzogen, von König Konrad III. in dessen Hofkapelle aufgenommen, wurde er unter Kaiser Friedrich I. Barbarossa auch als Notar in der Reichskanzlei eingesetzt, war im Hofgericht wie auch als Gesandter des Kaisers tätig. Für den Sohn des Kaisers, Heinrich VI., fungierte Gottfried als einer seiner Erzieher und Lehrer und war dessen Kapellan. Der hoch gebildete Literat Gottfried war auch sehr stark vom Römischen Recht geprägt, wie seine von ihm verfassten Urkunden der kaiserlichen Kanzlei zeigen, während Gottfried zuvor, bald nach 1140, in der Papstkanzlei erste Kanzleierfahrungen machen konnte, die seinen Stil beeinflussten. Seit 1175 widmete Gottfried sich der Bearbeitung seiner Werke, die er anfangs dem jungen König Heinrich VI. später den Päpsten Urban III. und Gregor VIII. widmete. Gottfrieds literarisches Schaffen beginnt mit mem Werk Speculum regum, eine Genealogie der Kaiser und Könige bis zu Karl dem Grossen, eine Arbeit, die er als Memoria seculorum, von der Schöpfung beginned bis auf König Konrad III. erweiterte. Dieses dann als Liber memorialis bezeichnete Werk Verbesserte und vermehrte Gottfried zum Liber universalis, von dem sich in Paris größtenteils autographe Urschrift erhalten hat. Auch dieses Werk stellte nur eine Zwischenstufe in den Arbeiten Gottfrieds dar. Angereichert um die Gesta Friderici bildete es die Basis für die Ausformung der Weltgeschichte, Pantheon, welches in drei Fassungen zwischen 1187 und 1191 fertiggestellt wurde und in eine Vielzahl von Handschriften überliefert ist.

Durch die in vielen Gesichtspunkten veraltete Edition der Werke Gottfrieds hat seine historiographische Einschätzung kaum die gebührende Würdigung erhalten. Besonders der kultur- und geistersgeschichtliche Hintergrund, worunter die Vorrangstellung und die Größe des staufischen Herrschergeschlechts, Aspekte des höfischen Denkens, das Verhältnis zum Papsttum oder zu Frankreich etwa, hervorzuheben sind. – Nach den Bemerkungen in seinem Pantheon dürfte Gottfried, im hohen Alter stehend, nach 1202 wohl in Viterbo verstorben sein.

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Richard BEADLE (Cambridge):

Palaeography and the Pastons

The Paston Letters are the archive of an upwardly-mobile English gentry family of the mid- to late fifteenth century, whose growing influence in their native county of Norfolk was matched by the diversification of their connections in London and at court.  The letters, which consist of over 1,000 documents, comprise one of the largest collections of late-medieval English autograph writings, representing as they do the work of some 330 scribes, a large number of whom are named, and about many of whom we have a good deal of biographical information, both from the letters themselves and from external sources.  Since the late eighteenth century, when they were first discovered and transcribed, the letters have attracted sustained attention from social, political, economic  and cultural historians, and (because most of them are in the vernacular), from philologists and historians of the English language. Their importance for the study of late-medieval English palaeography has however remained relatively unrecognised.

Because many of the documents are signed, dated and localised, it is possible, for example, to trace the progress of an individual’s handwriting over several decades, or to observe its appearance in a variety of physical and functional contexts—drafting and spontaneous composition, file copying, fair copying, writing from dictation, and so forth. The letters offer many opportunities for the study of handwriting in relation to such factors as social status, education, vocation and gender; and, since some of the writers appear in other settings copying books and literary texts, they provide avenues of enquiry into the relationship between ‘business’ hands and book hands in the period.

This paper will give an illustrated overview of the opportunities for palaeographical research opened up by the study of the many autograph items in the Paston archive, drawing on the recently completed diplomatic edition of the entire collection, Paston Letters and Papers of the Fifteenth Century, Parts I and II, ed. N Davis, Part III, ed. R. Beadle and C. Richmond, Early English Text Society, 2005–6. 

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Simon HOROBIN (Oxford):

Osbern Bokenham: author and scribe?

The starting point for this paper is my recent discovery of the unique surviving manuscript of Osbern Bokenham’s translation of the Legenda Aurea.  Palaeographical analysis of this manuscript has enabled me to identify the main scribe of this manuscript as identical with that of another Bokenham work, his translation of Claudian’s De Consulatu Stilichonis, now British Library Additional 11814.  This manuscript is important in containing a colophon stating that it was translated and copied at Clare in 1445.  This localisation makes it likely that the new Bokenham manuscript was also produced at Clare, probably sometime in the middle of the fifteenth century.  Clare Priory was a house of Augustinian friars and Bokenham himself was a member of the convent until his death c.1464.  It is probable therefore that the manuscript was produced under Bokenham’s supervision, and possible that Bokenham himself was the scribe.  In this paper I will draw upon palaeographical, textual, codicological and historical evidence to consider whether these two important manuscripts should be added to our corpus of medieval English autograph manuscripts. 

Consideration of these manuscripts will also lead me to suggest that Clare Priory was a much more important centre of book production than has previously been recognised.  Previous work on book production in East Anglia has tended to focus on two better-known centres, the Benedictine Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds and the Austin friary at Lynn, Norfolk, and Clare has been neglected.  In this paper I will argue that Clare was an important regional centre, supplying members of the East Anglian gentry and nobility with high-quality manuscripts containing devotional and theological works in both Latin and English.

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Louis HOLTZ (Lyon):

From master to pupil:
from Florus of Lyons to Mannon of Saint-Oyend

Both Florus of Lyons and Mannon of Saint-Oyend have left many autographs, mostly in Caroline minuscule, but also in capitals and uncial. Their scripts are so similar that for a long time we could not distinguish between them. Their manuscripts are not the only exponents of the lively activity in the scriptorium at Lyons during the period in which Florus was not only the right hand man of the bishop, whether it were Agobard, Amolon or Remy, but also the director of a library and a scriptorium renowned throughout the Carolingian world. The other Lyonese scribes of L, however, remain anonymous.  What sets Mannon apart, other than his position as dean of Saint-Oyend, an abbey that has deep-seated ties with Lyon, is the special trust that Florus shows him. For his own writings, Florus asked Mannon to make the fair copy. In the eyes of Florus, its scripts remains distinct in small – but nonetheless characteristic – details of ductus, which probably escaped even Mannon’s attention, and this is also the case of other students of Florus whose names have not come down to us.

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Jacqueline HAMESSE (Louvain-la-Neuve):

Matthieu d’Acquasparta et ses autographes :
un cas exemplaire de l’époque scolastique

Le franciscain Matthieu d’Acquasparta, qui exerça son activité pendant la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, a légué par testament ses livres à deux bibliothèques : celle d’Assise et celle de Todi. Le document reprend  la liste des dons qu’il a faits. Parmi les manuscrits sont mentionnés  plusieurs autographes « de manu mea». Ce témoignage personnel est évidemment d’un intérêt primordial pour tous ceux qui abordent l’étude des autographes de cette époque. Parmi les  textes écrits de sa main qui ont fait partie du legs, certains ont malheureusement disparu, mais il en reste assez pour pouvoir se livrer à un examen attentif de son écriture et de ses méthodes de composition. Or, jusqu’à présent, aucun chercheur ne s’est livré à une étude approfondie de ces témoins manuscrits et es informations qu’on peut en tirer.

L’auteur a fait ses études, puis enseigné à Paris, occupant une des chaires réservée aux ordres mendiants, avant de devenir Maître général de l’ordre franciscain, puis d’être ensuite élevé au rang de cardinal. Son parcours est donc très riche et touche à beaucoup de domaines divers.

Puisque nous connaissons son écriture grâce aux autographes qu’il a lui-même désignés, il a aussi été possible de retrouver d’autres manuscrits autographes de sa main, qui ne figurent pas explicitement dans son testament. C’est le cas, par exemple, pour un recueil de sermons. Le dossier ainsi constitué nous semble particulièrement diversifié et adapté pour la présentation d’une communication lors d’un colloque consacré aux autographes.

Outre l’analyse de l’écriture, les procédés rédactionnels et la mise en page des textes peuvent apporter des informations de première main concernant l’histoire de l’écriture, les méthodes d’enseignement et les pratiques intellectuelles  des universitaires de cette époque.

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Amandine POSTEC (Paris):

Processus et formes d’écriture d’un maître universitaire au XIIIe s. :
Matthieu d’Aquasparta entre ses autographes et ses copistes

Matthieu d’Aquasparta occupe la chaire franciscaine des maîtres régents de l’université de Paris de 1277 à 1279, puis il est nommé lecteur à la Curie romaine avant d’accéder au cardinalat. Auteur prolixe, il a légué toute sa bibliothèque aux deux couvents d’Assise et de Todi, partageant entre eux des écrits manu mea et des mises au net produites sous son contrôle. Ce legs s’offre aujourd’hui quasi intact à  l’historien qui veut étudier le processus de mise en forme d’un texte, du brouillon à la copie révisée.

Les autographes se présentent comme des brouillons, sans doute rédigés à la suite de cours ou de disputes. L’écriture de Matthieu, cursive particulièrement rapide, riche en ligatures comme en tracés simplifiés, se prête à des comparaisons intéressantes avec celles de ses contemporains au sein du milieu universitaire. En outre, elle se rapproche par certains aspects des cursives documentaires contemporaines.

La seconde étape, la mise au net par des copistes attachés au maître, mérite une étude tout aussi approfondie. Les copistes semblent en général très scrupuleux dans la reproduction de l’autographe, mais commettent des erreurs significatives. Matthieu intervient ensuite fortement sur la copie. Il faut encore préciser que le maître a employé différents copistes. Mettant au propre les autographes d’un même auteur, ils se prêtent à d’ultérieures comparaisons paléographiques, concernant la manière dont ils transposent leur modèle, par exemple dans leur système abréviatif respectif.

Au total, ce dossier peu courant de brouillons d’auteur et de mises au net différenciées doit permettre d’éclairer le processus de travail d’un maître universitaire du XIIIe s. ainsi que la corrélation entre les états d’un texte et les formes de l’écriture

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Francisco GIMENO BLAY (València):

Autographes du roi Pierre le Cérémonieux

Avant l’an 1344, Pierre le Cérémonieux (Pierre IV d'Aragon, 1319 - 1387) décida de traduire du latin en catalan le texte des Leges palatinae regni Majoricarum (Bruxelles, Bibliothèque Royale Albert I, Cod. no 9.169). Le résultat de cette traduction fut le manuscrit des Ordinacions de la casa i cort conservé à Valence (Universidad de València. Biblioteca General i Històrica, ms. 1500). La version catalane fut promulguée à Barcelone en date du quintodecimo kalendas novembris anno Domini millesimo trecentesimo quadragesimo quarto.

Après leur publication, le roi conserva soigneusement le manuscrit dans les archives royales à Barcelone et continua à réviser le texte manuscrit. Il a lui-même corrigé et modifié la première version et ajouté la traduction des différents textes omis par les traducteurs. Partout où il le jugeait opportun, le roi inscrivit ses corrections. Ainsi le manuscrit s'est transformé en un manuscrit d’auteur, conservant des variantes propres qui ont donné naissance à une tradition manuscrite très riche.

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Elena E. RODRÍGEZ DÍAZ(Huelva):

Manuscritos autógrafos en la producción castellana del siglo XV:
una aproximación codicológica

Análisis de la factura material y gráfica de una selección de códices autógrafos, en todo o en parte, elaborados en el reino de Castilla durante el siglo XV, que han llegado hasta nosotros bajo la modalidad de borrador o como copia en limpio y que ofrecen contenidos de distinta naturaleza textual, como crónicas,  sermones, obras literarias, etc. 

Los resultados obtenidos se contrastarán con las constantes codicológicas y paleográficas de la producción manuscrita del siglo XV, utilizando como base un conjunto de 100 manuscritos datados, confeccionados en papel y en pergamino, en escrituras librarias y cursivas, con distintos contenidos y elaborados en los diferentes ambientes culturales del reino de Castilla.

Esta comparación entre la especificidad de los manuscritos autógrafos y la generalidad de los códices castellanos del siglo XV nos permitirá observar, entre otras cosas, la elección que el autor/copista hace entre los distintos elementos gráfico-materiales a su alcance, al no estar constreñido a las exigencias formales de un comanditario.  Constataremos, por ejemplo, cómo esa libertad facilita la manifestación de elementos propios de la tradición humanística en medio de un mayoritario conservadurismo gótico.

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Maddalena SIGNORINI (Roma): 

Petrarch’s tracce:  dates, forms, features

I should like to present the provisional results of studies of a particular category of Petrarch's autographs, those which are to be found in his manuscripts written on spaces not originally specifically destined to receive formal writing: flyleaves, white margins and in general blank spaces scattered around the books. Such autographs, which should be classed as tracce (according to the meaning attached to the word by recent paleographical studies) have not enjoyed – and perhaps not surprisingly – the same attention which has been devoted to others.

However, research into texts transmitted as addition to book or to the back of documents has shown that this writing practice was widely adopted during the Middel Ages, especially in the later period. As a consequence, Petrarch's writing habits do not represent an exception or a personal invention, but rather they are the expression fo a graphic habit widely adopted also among his contemporaries. In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon is therefore vital to explain the significance of Petrarch's personal uses. 

I have studied Petrarch's tracce with the intention of dating them individually so as to establish their chronological sequence, and also to describe and analyse writings which – far from being occasional occurrences – constitute a coherent unit which responds to certain features and to a graphic and cultural project which is well worth of our attention.

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Mark AUSSEMS (Edinburgh):

« Escript a Paris par moi, Cristine de Pizan » ?

Christine de Pizan (ca 1364-ca 1430) was the first female author who could make a living from the products of her pen. During her long and prolific life as an author, she composed numerous works for the Kings, Queens, and Dukes of France, which were made into lavishly decorated manuscripts by Parisian scribes and illuminators. Manuscripts of her works include the now famous Queen’s Manuscript (London, British Library, Harley 4431), a collection of thirty works dedicated to Queen Isabeau of France and offered to her in January 1414.

In the first part of the 19th century, it was suggested by palaeographers that Christine herself might have been involved in the production process of some of the manuscripts produced during her lifetime. Since 1965, these original manuscripts have been extensively studied and experts have agreed on the idea that Christine supervised the production of most of them. Moreover, on several occasions the hypothesis has been raised that Christine also copied several of these manuscripts herself, thus acting as her own scribe – the so-called scribe X.

In the present paper (which results from my Ph.D. research carried out at the University of Edinburgh), I seek to analyse the autographic character of a corpus of Christine’s original manuscripts. A codicological examination of the corpus will provide insights into the production process of these manuscripts, thereby shedding light on the questions about whether or not Christine disposed of a scriptorium of her own, and about the division of labour between the different scribes and illuminators working on Christine’s manuscripts.

A palaeographical analysis of the handwriting in our corpus of manuscripts – carried out by using innovative digital automatic writer identification tools – will both yield conclusions concerning the number of hands that were involved in their transcription, and raise questions about the autographic nature of scribe X. Can this scribe really be identified as Christine de Pizan herself?

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Gaia Elisabetta UNFER VERRE (Cassino):

Carolingian minuscule manuscripts with Cassinese decoration at Montecassino

Thanks to the studies of the last years, especially the ones of Francis Newton, we know that caroline script was present in the Montecassino scriptorium during the 11th century. A certain number of manuscripts, especially common ones, was copied partially in Beneventan and partially in ordinary minuscule, either by the same hand that slips from one script to another, either by different scribes. However, no complete manuscript in ordinary minuscule can be placed without doubts in the Desiderian or Oderisian scriptorium (1058-1105).

Such situation changes approximately from the 4th decade of the 12th century: a consistent group of manuscripts from this period and still preserved in Montecassino Archive shows the cohabitation of caroline-based script and Cassinese decoration.

In this contribution, these manuscripts mostly unpublished or not enough studied are presented and analyzed investigate the reasons why this particular kind of books and texts was written in ordinary minuscule while the dominant script was still Beneventan.

Besides the script, these manuscripts share also codicological and textual characteristics. They are virtually all of small dimensions, created for private reading rather than liturgical use, and mostly with new textual typologies, as for instance glossed Bibles, never found in Beneventan manuscripts. Furthermore, special attention will be paid to the scripts, sometimes very different one from the other. In particular, the frequent contact with Beneventan and with documentary scripts, rarer but very interesting, will be investigated, in order to understand the connections with the local environment.

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Ellen BOŠNJAK (München):

Der Übergang zur Kurrentschrift in süddeutschen Urkundenschriften

Studying the palaeography early modern handwritten script is still an urgent task. The proposed paper tries to contribute to that by analysing document hands in the 15th and 16th century. It starts from the results of a research on the documents preserved in the University Archives Munich which were written in central Bavaria in the 15th and 16th century (publ. In Archiv für Diplomatik 55, 2009). With this material the gradual shift from bastarda and gothic cursive to the early forms of so called German Kurrent in the 16th century could be analysed in detail. The paper will use the same morphological methods to study other documents from the south eastern part of the Holy Roman Empire. As the images are provided by the monasterium.net-project a database approach can be taken which enables the scholar to develop clear criteria based on the morphology of the minuscule letters. The results of this approach can help to get over the traditional "impressionist" descriptions of the changes towards the Kurrent and thus give a starting point for other regional studies.

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Irene CECCHERINI (Firenze):

Sozomeno da Pistoia tra littera moderna e littera antiqua

Tra gli umanisti della prima generazione, Sozomeno da Pistoia (1387-1458) riveste un ruolo di importanza non secondaria, sia sul piano intellettuale e culturale connesso al recupero della cultura classica, sia sul piano della storia della scrittura e della confezione di libri all’antica. Un progetto biennale avviato nel luglio 2008, promosso dalla Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Pistoia e Pescia e dall’Università degli Studi di Firenze, ha consentito di approfondire in maniera organica il profilo di intellettuale, di copista e di bibliofilo dell’umanista pistoiese, attraverso la ricostruzione della sua biblioteca (donata all’Opera di San Iacopo di Pistoia già in un testamento del 1423 e oggi dispersa tra Pistoia, Firenze, Vaticano, Padova, Londra, Oxford, Parigi, Leiden, Romorantin e Krivoklat) e lo studio della sua attività di maestro, filologo e commentatore di classici.

Questa relazione vuole presentare i principali risultati sulla figura di Sozomeno quale copista. Dopo l’indispensabile lavoro di Albinia de la Mare (1973), che per prima ha studiato, descritto e datato gli autografi sozomeniani, e le riflessioni di Emanuele Casamassima (1988), che ha definito l’umanista pistoiese «un irregolare della riforma grafica umanistica», restano ancora da chiarire numerosi aspetti dell’esperienza grafica di Sozomeno, uno dei pochi per cui è possibile ricostruire il passaggio da scritture di tradizione moderna, vale a dire gotica, quali la littera textualis e le bastarde su base testuale, a scritture ispirate alle nuove istanze della riforma grafica umanistica, articolate in un prezioso repertorio di sperimentazioni diverse, dalla littera antiqua formale alla sua caratteristica corsiva all’antica, in una grande varietà di interpretazioni. Attraverso alcuni esempi significativi, si presentano dunque i tempi e i modi con cui Sozomeno modifica la propria scrittura. In particolare, si mettono in evidenza, sia sul piano delle strutture grafiche che sul piano dei fatti di esecuzione e di stile, le caratteristiche della sua mano ‘gotica’, quelle della sua mano ‘umanistica’ e quali sono gli elementi che definiscono il passaggio dalla littera moderna alla littera antiqua.

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Tommaso GRAMIGNI (Arezzo):

Un catalogo delle iscrizioni medievali in territorio fiorentino
Esempi di scrittura epigrafica nell’area di Firenze tra XI e XIII secolo

Il materiale epigrafico del territorio fiorentino riferibile al periodo medievale è numericamente ridotto e scarsamente studiato rispetto ad altri centri toscani.Tale materiale permette comunque di tracciare una chiara linea di sviluppo che parte da una situazione di emergenze epigrafiche sporadiche, dubbie, difficilmente contestualizzabili o comunque graficamente disomogenee (XI-XII secolo).

Il quadro inizia a cambiare con il procedere entro il secolo XIII e risulta completamente mutato nel XIV, quando la piena affermazione di Firenze come potenza economica e politica riporta in primo piano l’importanza del messaggio epigrafico. L’iscrizione torna ad occupare spazi pubblici non necessariamente legati alla Chiesa: ne sono ottimi esempi l’iscrizione di fondazione del Palazzo del Popolo del 1255 o la serie di iscrizioni della terza cerchia di mura, dei primi del Trecento e redatte in volgare. Alle mutazioni di destinazione ed impiego del medium epigrafico corrisponde una normalizzazione stilistica, che investe la scrittura esposta in modo analogo a quanto avviene nelle scritture librarie con la littera textualis. L’impiego di varianti di forme di lettera si stabilizza progressivamente nella scelta di un repetorio rigidamente stilizzato e normalizzato, quello della maiuscola gotica.

Il censimento del materiale epigrafico medievale fiorentino ha consentito da un lato di recuperare un insieme di fonti in gran parte totalmente dimenticate, aggiungendo un tassello al corpus delle iscrizioni medievali italiane, dall’altro di mostrare come la produzione epigrafica medievale sia, per Firenze come per qualsiasi altro centro, strettamente connessa al grado di diffusione della cultura scritta, ma anche e soprattutto alla possibilità e alla volontà di sfruttare le potenzialità comunicative della scrittura esposta da parte di chi possiede e gestisce lo spazio pubblico, il che condiziona certamente anche i modi con cui il messaggio si trasforma in segno grafico

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Mª Luisa DOMÍNGUEZ GUERRERO (Sevilla):

The graphic universe in a colonial city:
Cuzco in the 16th century

In our research project we try to determine, in a relevant city as Cuzco was along the sixteenth century, the use that civil and ecclesiastical administration, and private individuals, make in their writings of the complex graphic system currently used in the Spanish Crown, particularly in the Castilian territories, where most of the conquerors and settlers came from. 

We will try to identify the graphical models which were employed in the different producing-document offices (the civil and ecclesiastical councils) and in private documents (from religious communities, landowners, and other social groups represented in the preserved sources ...). Also, we want to know which kinds of graphics (gothic, humanistic…) were used by lay notaries (public notaries, clerks of the council and their secretaries), clergymen (secretaries of the cathedral council, or those of the religious orders) and private individuals. We will study when Gothic models were replaced by humanistic types and the consequent emergence and development of hybrid scriptures, in official documents and also in the different papers that private individuals send to the Crown (memorials, requests ...) and which are now preserved in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville.

Moreover we will compare this situation with the models which were been proposed by the Spanish calligraphers since the mid-sixteenth century.

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Guðvarður Már GUNNLAUGSSON (Reykjavik):

Einar Hafliðason – an Icelandic author from the 14th century

The manuscript AM 420 b 4to (Lögmannsannáll), in the collection housed by the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík, is an important one. This is not only on account of its content but because it is the oldest Icelandic autograph, as far as we know. Most of the manuscript was written in 1361 though the last leaf (annal entries for the years 1362-92) is younger and was written by other scribes. The author (and the scribe of the main part of the manuscript) is Einar Hafliðason (1307-93), an official in the diocese of Hólar in northern Iceland. His hand is found in a few other documents, thus scholars have been able to identify the hand of the Lögmannsannáll manuscript as his. Einar was also the author of Laurentíus saga biskups, which is the life of Laurentíus Kálfsson (bishop of Hólar 1324-31), though the original manuscript of this saga is not extant. Lögmannsannáll is remarkable because the scribe alternates between textualis and cursiva, sometimes many times on each page. In this paper, I will present detailed information about the manuscript, its content (the annals), the author and other works by him, the author´s handwriting, and the reasons for his switching between different scripts. The manuscript is now only 11 leaves but originally was larger, and is thought to have covered the years 70 A.D. to 1361. It is clear that the author made use of an older annal for the entries from the beginning to his own time, but it is not clear where he stopped copying and began to write his own text—this is a question I will also address in my paper.

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Edit MADAS (Budapest):

Deux manuscrits autographes en langue hongroise
de la fin du Moyen Âge :
De l’impurum à la copie d’auteur

Cette année j’organise une grande exposition à la Bibliothèque Nationale Széchényi des "monuments linguistiques" de la Hongrie, depuis les documents écrits vers l’an Mil dans lesquels les mots hongrois font leur première apparition des jusqu’aux manuscrits hongrois de la fin de Moyen Age. De la période finale (1474–1526) – époque de la floraison des codex vernaculaires –  nous sont restés 50 mss, parmi lesquels je voudrais présenter deux pièces intéressantes par leur caractère autographe.

La première est l’impurum (daté de 1474) d’une traduction des Règles et des Constitutions des soeurs dominicaines en vue de leur réforme. L’existence de cette traduction de Paulus de Vac O.P.,  maître en théologie, était connue d’après une visitation du couvent au XVIIe siècle, mais vers la fin de XIXe siècle on a retrouvé dans la couverture d’un livre imprimé le brouillon assez spécial de Paulus. On connaît aussi un incunable de la Summa theologica de saint Thomas d’Aquin enluminé par le même frère dominicain.

L’autre manuscrit est un sermonaire hongrois d’un chartreux anonyme (connu comme le Chartreux Anonyme en Hongrie), qu’il a compilé pendant plusieurs années, mais dont il a fait la rédaction finale (une copie) avec un confrère en 1526, avant que les Turcs interrompent le travail. On peut bien suivre la méthode du travail dans le manuscrit inachevé.

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